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ಮಾಹಿತಿ ಹಕ್ಕು ಕಾನೂನು ಜಾಗತಿಕವಾಗಿ ನಡೆದು ಬಂದ ಹಾದಿ


ಅಂಡರ್ಸ್ ಚೈಡಿನಿಯಸ್.

ಮಾಹಿತಿ ಹಕ್ಕು ಕಾನೂನು ಪ್ರಪಂಚದಲ್ಲಿ ಮೊದಲಿಗೆ ಜಾರಿ ಮಾಡಿದವರು ಸ್ವೀಡನ್ ದೇಶದವರು. ೨ ನೇ ಡಿಸೆಂಬರ್ ೧೭೬೬ ರಲ್ಲಿ ಅಂದರೆ ೨೪೦ ವರ್ಷದ ಹಿಂದೆ ಜಾರಿಯಾದ ಕಾನೂನಿಗೆ ಪಿತಾಮಹ ಅಂಡರ್ಸ್ ಚೈಡಿನಿಯಸ್. ಇವರ ಸಂದೇಶ ಇಂದಿಗೂ ಅರ್ಥ ಗರ್ಬಿತವಾಗಿದೆ.

"ರಾಜನ ವೈಯುಕ್ತಿಕ ನಡವಳಿಕೆ ಸರಿಯಾಗಿದ್ದರೆ ಆತನ ಸರಕಾರವು ಯಾವುದೇ ಆದೇಶಕ್ಕೆ ಅವಶ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲದೆ ಸಮೃದ್ಧಿಯಾಗಿರುತ್ತದೆ. ಆದರೆ ಆತನ ನಡವಳಿಕೆ ಸರಿಯಿಲ್ಲದೆ ಹೋದರೆ ಆತ ಎಷ್ಟೇ ಆದೇಶಗಳನ್ನು ಹೊರಡಿಸಿದರೂ ಪಾಲನೆ ಆಗದು. ಆತನ ಮಾತು ಸತ್ಯದಿಂದ, ನಿಷ್ಠೆಯಿಂದ, ಗೌರವದಿಂದ ಮತ್ತು ಜಾಗರೂಕತೆಯಿಂದ ಕೂಡಿರಲಿ"

ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಪಿತ ಮಹಾತ್ಮ ಗಾಂದೀಜಿಯವರು ಹೀಗೆನ್ನುತ್ತಾರೆ "ನಿಜವಾದ ಸ್ವರಾಜ್ಯ ಪ್ರಾಪ್ತವಾಗುವುದು ಕೆಲವರಿಗೆ ಅಧಿಕಾರ ಪ್ರಾಪ್ತವಾಗುವುದರಿಂದ ಅಲ್ಲ, ಅಧಿಕಾರವನ್ನು ಧುರುಪಯೋಗ ಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವುವರ ಮೇಲೆ ಪ್ರತಿಭಟನೆಯ ಮುಖಾಂತರ ಕಡಿವಾಣ ಹಾಕುವುದರಿಂದ."


ಮಾನ್ಯ ಶ್ರೇಷ್ಠ ನ್ಯಾಯಾಲಯದ ಮುಂದೆ ೧೯೭೩ ರ ಕೇಸಾದ Bennett Coleman v. Union of India ರಲ್ಲಿ ಹೀಗೆ ಹೇಳಲಾಗಿದೆ. (AIR 1973 SC 60.) the right to information was held to be included within the right to freedom of speech and expression guaranteed by Article19 (1) (a).


ಮಾನ್ಯ ಶ್ರೇಷ್ಠ ನ್ಯಾಯಾಲಯದ ಮುಂದೆ ೧೯೭೫ ರ ಕೇಸಾದ State of UP v Raj Narain ರಲ್ಲಿ ಹೀಗೆ ಹೇಳಲಾಗಿದೆ. {(1975) 4 SCC 428.} ""In a Government of responsibility like ours where the agents of the public must be responsible for their conduct there can be but a few secrets. The people of this country have a right to know every public act, everything that is done in a public way by their public functionaries. They are entitled to know the particulars of every public transaction in all its bearings."


ಮಾನ್ಯ ಶ್ರೇಷ್ಠ ನ್ಯಾಯಾಲಯದ ಮುಂದೆ ೧೯೯೫ ರ ಕೇಸಾದ Secretary, Ministry of I & B, Government of India v Cricket Association of Bengal ರಲ್ಲಿ ಹೀಗೆ ಹೇಳಲಾಗಿದೆ. ((1995) 2 SCC 161) “The freedom of speech and expression includes right to acquire information and to disseminate it. Freedom of speech and expression is necessary, for self-expression which is an important means of free conscience and selffulfillment. It enables people to contribute to debates on social and moral
issues. It is the best way to find a truest model of anything, since it is only through it that the widest possible range of ideas can circulate. It is the only vehicle of political discourse so essential to democracy. Equally important is the role it plays in facilitating artistic and scholarly endeavours of all sorts. The right to communicate, therefore, includes right to communicate through any media that is available whether print or electronic or audio-visual such as advertisement, movie, article, speech, etc. That is why freedom of speech and expression includes freedom of the press. The freedom of the press in turn includes right to circulate and also to determine the volume of such circulation. The right to impart and receive information from electronic media is a part of the right to freedom of speech and expression. This freedom includes the freedom to communicate or circulate one’s opinion without interference to as large a population in the country, as well as abroad, as is possible to reach.”


ಮಾನ್ಯ ಶ್ರೇಷ್ಠ ನ್ಯಾಯಾಲಯದ ಮುಂದೆ ೧೯೮೨ ರ ಕೇಸಾದ S.P. Gupta v. UOI ರಲ್ಲಿ ಹೀಗೆ ಹೇಳಲಾಗಿದೆ. (AIR 1982 SC 149.) the right of the people to know about every public act, and the details of every public transaction undertaken by public functionaries was described.


ಮಾನ್ಯ ಶ್ರೇಷ್ಠ ನ್ಯಾಯಾಲಯದ ಮುಂದೆ ೧೯೭೫ ರ ಕೇಸಾದ State of UP vs Rajnarain, ರಲ್ಲಿ ಹೀಗೆ ಹೇಳಲಾಗಿದೆ. (AIR 1975 SC 865.) Justice K. K. Mathew of Supreme Court of India said that ‘in a government.... where all the agents of the public must be responsible for their conduct, there can be but few secrets. The people.... have a right to know every public act, everything that is done in a public way, by their public functionaries.... The responsibility of officials to explain or to justify their acts is the chief safeguard against oppression and corruption’.


ಮಾನ್ಯ ಶ್ರೇಷ್ಠ ನ್ಯಾಯಾಲಯದ ಮುಂದೆ ೨೦೦೪ ರ ಕೇಸಾದ People’s Union for Civil Liberties v. UOI, ರಲ್ಲಿ ಹೀಗೆ ಹೇಳಲಾಗಿದೆ. (2004 (2) SCC 476.) the right to information was further elevated to the status of a human right, necessary for making governance transparent and accountable. It was also emphasized that governance must be participatory.






ಮಾನವಹಕ್ಕು ಘೋಷಣೆಯನ್ನು ಮಾಡಿದ ವಿಶ್ವಸಂಸ್ಥೆ ಸಾಲು ಈ ರೀತಿಯದ್ದಾಗಿದೆ. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; the right includes the right to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through media regardless of frontiers. (Universal Declaration of Human Rights )






ಬ್ರಷ್ಟಾಚಾರದ ವಿಚಾರದಲ್ಲಿ ಘೋಷಣೆಯನ್ನು ಮಾಡಿದ ವಿಶ್ವಸಂಸ್ಥೆ ಸಾಲು ಈ ರೀತಿಯದ್ದಾಗಿದೆ. Article 13 of the ‘UN Convention against Corruption’, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 31 October 2003 identifies: ‘(i) effective access to information for public; (ii) undertaking public information activities contributing to non-tolerance of corruption (including conducting public education programmes) and (iii) respecting, promoting and protecting the freedom to seek, receive, publish and disseminate information concerning corruption…’ as important measures to be taken by Governments for ensuring the participation of society in governance.






ಆರ್ಥಿಕ ತಜ್ನ ಮತ್ತು ನೋಬೆಲ್ ಪುರಸ್ಕೃತ ಪ್ರೋ. ಅಮಾರ್ತ್ಯ ಸೆನ್ ರವರ ನುಡಿಯಲ್ಲಿ
"Transparency guarantees deal with the need for openness that people can expect: the freedom to deal with one another under guarantees of disclosure and lucidity. When that trust is seriously violated, the lives of many people - both direct parties and third parties - may be adversely affected by the lack of openness. Transparency guarantees (including the right to disclosure) can thus be an important category of instrumental freedom. These guarantees have a clear instrumental role in preventing corruption, financial irresponsibility, and underhand dealings"

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